Collected Data: Charlemagne

  1. Was the first of 29 Holy Roman Emperors
  2. 12-4-771 A.D.

  3. Becomes King of all the Franks upon the death of his brother, Carloman, King of Austrasia, and marries Hildegarde of Swabia.

  4. 772 A.D.

  5. Begins 13 year war with Saxons that will end with their subjugation on the continent.

  6. 773 A.D.

  7. Becomes first Frankish King to visit Rome, making it very clear he is soverign even in papal lands.

  8. Stature

  9. He stood well over six feet tall, had red hair and blue eyes. He was a superb athlete, and a merry man who was capable of speaking Latin and understanding Greek. Repudiated his 771 marriage to Hildegarde, citing that it was no longer valid.

  10. Absorbed Lombardy into Frankish Empire

  11. Established rule in Venetia, Istria, Dalmatia, and Corsica.

  12. 777 A.D.

  13. Defeated Saxons, and Invaded Moorish Spain.

  14. 778 A.D.

  15. Basque forces annihilate Charlemagne's rear guard on August 15 at Roncesvalles. It is here that Charlemagne's paladin, Roland is killed. Song of Roland will later be wrote in rememberance.

  16. 780 A.D.

  17. Encourages the three-field system of crop rotation in his realms.

  18. 782 A.D.

  19. Executes 4,500 Saxon hostages at Verdun and imposes Christianity on the Saxons.

  20. 783 A.D.

  21. Saxons rebel, and Charlemagne again kills Saxon prisoners.

  22. 785 A.D.

  23. Subjugates Saxons again.

  24. 795 A.D.

  25. Bans export of grain from his dominions in order to avoid food shortages.

  26. 796 A.D.

  27. Forces reduce the Avars on the lower Danube.

  28. 12-25-800 A.D.

  29. Crowned head of the Western Roman Empire at Rome on Christmas day, but he is not recognized by Irene, empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. At one time he was due to marry Irene, but he backed out of it after Irene had her son thrown in the dungeon, had his eyes put out with hot pokers, and proclaimed herself Empress.

  30. 809 A.D.

  31. Famine sweeps the empire.

  32. 812 A.D.

  33. Orders that anise, coriander, fennel, flax, fenugreek, sage, and other plants be planted on German imperial farms.

  34. 814 A.D.

  35. Dies of Pleursy 1-28-814 at age of 71.

  36. Other:

  37. Established a common currency, the silver penny, and matched it with the values of Muslim coinage to encourage trade.

    His capital was in Aachen.

    Ordered the copying of many old manuscripts dating from the late empire.

    "The Carolingian Miniscule"....Upper case and lower case letters, was devised at the palace school Charlemagne set up.